MALAYSIA'S INTERNATIONAL INTERNET ROUTES
SEA-ME-WE 3 or South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3 is an optical submarine telecommunications cable linking those regions and is the longest in the world, completed in late 2000. It is operated by India's Tata Indicom and 92 other investors from the telecom industry. In Malaysia, this cable lands at Penang and Mersing ( Johor ).
It was commissioned in March 2000 in India. It is 39,000 km ( 24,000 mi ) in length and uses Wavelength Division Multiplexing ( WDM ) technology to increase capacity and enhance the quality of the signal, especially over long distances ( this cable stretches from North Germany to Australia and Japan ).
The route of the submarine cable ( red ); the blue segment is terrestrial South East Asia–Middle East–Western Europe 4 ( SEA-ME-WE 4 ) is an optical fibre submarine communications cable system that carries telecommunications between Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Egypt, Italy, Tunisia, Algeria and France. In Malaysia, this cable lands at Penang.
The cable is approximately 18,800 kilometres long, and provides the primary Internet backbone between South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Europe. The cable uses dense wavelength-division multiplexing ( DWDM ),  allowing for increased communications capacity per fibre compared to fibres carrying non-multiplexed signals and also facilitates bidirectional communication within a single fibre. DWDM does this by multiplexing different wavelengths of laser light on a single optical fibre so that multiple optical carrier signals can be concurrently transmitted along that fibre. Two fibre pairs are used with each fibre pair able to carry 64 wavelengths at 10 gigabits per second per wavelength. This enables terabit per second speeds along the SEA-WE-ME 4 cable, with a total capacity of 1.28 Tbit/s.
The South Africa Far East cable is an optical fiber submarine communications cable linking Melkbosstrand, South Africa to Penang, Malaysia. It was commissioned in 2002 and built by Tyco Submarine Systems of the USA with an initial capacity of 10 Gigabits per second, which is upgradeable to 130 Gigabits per second. It has four fiber strands, using Erbium-doped fiber amplifier repeaters and wavelength division multiplexing.
It has a total length of 13,104 kilometres, and is one of a pair of cables — SAT-3/WASC being the other — that provides high-speed digital links between Europe, West and Southern Africa and the Far East. Together with SAT-3/WASC, it also provides redundancy for other cables travelling through the Middle East. In Malaysia, this cable lands at Penang.
APCN or Asia-Pacific Cable Network is a submarine telecommunications cable system linking nine Asian countries. It has landing points in:
- Petchaburi, Thailand
- Mersing, Malaysia
- Changi, Singapore
- Ancol, Indonesia
- Lantau, Hong Kong
- Batangas, Philippines
- Toucheng, Taiwan
- Pusan, Korea
- Miyazaki, Japan
It has a transmission capacity of 5 Gbit/s, and a total cable length of approximately 12,000 km.
APCN 2 or Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 is a submarine telecommunications cable linking several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It has landing points in:
- Chongming, Shanghai, China
- Shantou, Guangdong Province, China
- Lantau Island, Islands District, Hong Kong
- Chikura, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
- Kitaibaraki, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan
- Pusan, South Korea
- Kuantan, Pahang State, Malaysia
- Batangas Bay, Batangas City, Batangas Province, Philippines
- Katong, Singapore
- Tanshui, Taipei County, Taiwan
Total bandwidth capacity of Asia Pacific Cable Network 2 is 2.56 Tbit/s, made up of four pairs of optical fibres, each pair providing 640 Gbit/s by Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing of 10 Gbit/s wavelengths. The 19,000 km-long APCN 2 cable system is built in a self-healing ring configuration, which allows fast rerouting of data transfers along APCN 2 in the event of disruptions. The cable system, as of January 2007, is progressively becoming operational. APCN 2 is designed to provide interconnection with other major trans-oceanic cable networks linking the USA, Europe, Australia, and other parts of Asia.